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Tuvalu

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Tuvalu
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Tuvalu mo te Atua"  (Tuvaluan)
"Tuvalu for the Almighty"
AnthemTuvalu mo te Atua  (Tuvaluan)
Tuvalu for the Almighty

Royal anthemGod Save the Queen
Capital Funafuti
8°31′S 179°13′E / 8.517°S 179.217°E / -8.517; 179.217
Official language(s) Tuvaluan, English
Demonym Tuvaluan
Government Parliamentary Democracy & Constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Governor General Iakoba Italeli
 -  Prime Minister Willy Telavi
Independence
 -  from the UK 1 October 1978 
Area
 -  Total 26 km2 (226th)
10 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  July 2010 estimate 10,472[1] (217th)
 -  Density 475.88/km2 (22nd)
1,142/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2002 estimate
 -  Total $14.94 million (228th)
 -  Per capita $1,600 (2002 estimate) (148th if ranked)
HDI (2003) n/a (unranked) (n/a)
Currency Tuvaluan dollar
Australian dollar (AUD)
Time zone (UTC+12)
Drives on the left
ISO 3166 code TV
Internet TLD .tv
Calling code 688

Tuvalu (/tuːˈvɑːluː/  ( listen) too-VAH-loo or /ˈtuːvəluː/ TOO-və-loo), formerly known as the Ellice Islands,[2] is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia. Its nearest neighbours are Kiribati, Nauru, Samoa and Fiji. It comprises four reef islands and five true atolls. Its population of 10,472 makes it the third-least populous sovereign state in the world, with only Vatican City and Nauru having fewer inhabitants. In terms of physical land size, at just 26 square kilometres (10 sq mi) Tuvalu is the fourth smallest country in the world, larger only than the Vatican City at 0.44 km2 (0.17 sq mi), Monaco at 1.95 km2 (0.75 sq mi) and Nauru at 21 km2 (8.1 sq mi).

The first inhabitants of Tuvalu were Polynesian people. In 1568 Spanish navigator Alvaro Mendaña discovered the islands during his expedition to Terra Australis. The islands came under Britain's sphere of influence in the late 19th century. The name Ellice was applied to all nine islands after the work of English hydrographer Alexander George Findlay (1812-1876)[3] The Ellice Islands were administered by Britain as part of a protectorate from 1892 to 1916 and as part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony from 1916 to 1974. In 1974, the Ellice Islanders voted for separate British dependency status as Tuvalu, separating from the Gilbert Islands which became Kiribati upon independence. Tuvalu became fully independent within the Commonwealth on October 1, 1978. On September 5, 2000, Tuvalu became the 189th member of the United Nations.

Contents

[edit] History

Tuvaluan man in traditional costume drawn by Alfred Agate in 1841 during the United States Exploring Expedition.
A man from the Nukufetau atoll, 1841.

Tuvaluans are a Polynesian people who settled the islands around 3000 years ago[4] coming from Tonga and Samoa. During pre-European-contact times there was frequent canoe voyaging between the nearer islands. Eight of the nine islands of Tuvalu were inhabited; thus the name, Tuvalu, means "eight standing together" in Tuvaluan. Possible evidence of fire in the Caves of Nanumanga may indicate human occupation thousands of years before that.

Tuvalu was first sighted by Europeans in 1568 with the arrival of Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira from Spain who also encountered the island of Nui but was unable to land. Keith S. Chambers and Doug Munro (1980) identify Niutao as the island that Francisco Antonio Mourelle named on May 5, 1781 thus solving what Europeans had called The Mystery of Gran Cocal.[5] [6] The next European to visit was Arent Schuyler de Peyster, of New York, captain of the armed brigantine or privateer Rebecca, sailing under British colours,[7] which passed through the southern Tuvalu waters in May 1819 sighting Nukufetau and Funafuti, which de Peyster named Ellice's Island after an English Politician, Edward Ellice, the Member of Parliament for Coventry and the owner of the Rebecca's cargo.[8] In 1820 the Russian explorer A. P. Lazarev visited Nukufetau.[9] Following 1819 whalers were roving the Pacific though visiting Tuvalu only infrequently because of the difficulties of landing ships on the atolls. No settlements had been established by them.[10]

Peruvian slave raiders ("blackbirders") seeking workers to mine the guano deposits on the Chincha Islands in Peru, combed the Pacific between 1862 and 1865, including the southern islands of Tuvalu.[11] The Rev. A. W. Murray[12], the earliest European missionary in Tuvalu, reported that in 1863 about 180 people[13] were taken from Funafuti and about 200 were taken from Nukulaelae[14] as there were fewer than 100 of the 300 recorded in 1861 as living on Nukulaelae.[15][16]

Christianity first came to Tuvalu when Elekana, a Christian deacon from Manihiki in the Cook Islands became caught in a storm and drifted for 8 weeks before landing at Nukulaelae. Once there, Elekana began proselytizing Christianity.[17] In 1865 the Rev. A. W. Murray of the London Missionary Society of Protestant congregationalists, arrived as the first European missionary where he too proselytized among the inhabitants of Tuvalu. By 1878 Protestantism was well established with Protestant preachers on each island.[18]

[edit] Trading firms & traders

The Sydney firms of Robert Towns and Company, J. C. Malcolm and Company, and Macdonald, Smith and Company, pioneered the coconut-oil trade in Tuvalu.[19] By the 1870’s J. C. Godeffroy und Sohn of Hamburg (operating out of Samoa) began to dominate the Tuvalu copra trade, which company was in 1879 taken over by Handels-und Plantagen-Gesellschaft der Südsee-Inseln zu Hamburg (DHPG). Competition came from H. M. Ruge and Company, and from Henderson and Macfarlane of Auckland, New Zealand. [20] These trading companies engaged palagi traders who lived on the islands, some islands would have competing traders with dryer islands only have a single trader. Changes occurred with steamships replacing sailing vessels. Over time the number of competing trading companies diminished, beginning with Ruge’s bankruptcy in 1888 followed by the withdrawal of the DHPG from trading in Tuvalu in 1889/90. Henderson and Macfarlane then dominated the copra trade, operating their vessel SS Archer to call on islands in Fiji, Tuvalu, and Kiribati [21] New competition came from Burns Philp, operating from what is now Kiribati, with competition from Levers Pacific Plantations from 1903 and from Captain E. F. H. Allen of the Samoa Shipping and Trading Company from 1911.[22] The numbers of palagi traders declined with the supercargo of each ship dealing directly with Tuvaluans so that by 1909 there were no resident palagi traders representing the trading firms.[23] Tuvaluans became responsible for meeting their obligation to provide copra to pay the Queen’s Tax, with Tuvaluans also taking responsibility for operating trading stores on each island.

In 1892 Captain Davis of the H.M.S. Royalist, reported on trading activities and traders on each of the islands visited.[24] Captain Davis identified the following traders in the Ellice Group: Edmund Duffy (Nanumea); Jack Buckland (Niutao); Harry Nitz (Vaitupu); John (also known as Jack) O'Brien (Funafuti); Alfred Restieaux and Fenisot (Nukufetau); and Martin Kleis (Nui).[25] This was the time at which the greatest number of palagi traders lived on the atolls, acting as the agent for the trading companies.[26] In the later 1890’s and into first decade of the 20th century, structural changes occurred in the operation of the Pacific trading companies, with the trading companies moving from a practice of having traders resident on each island to trade with the islanders to a business operation where the supercargo (the cargo manager of a trading ship) would deal directly with the islanders when a ship would visit an island. From 1900 the numbers of palagi traders in Tuvalu declined, with the last of the palagi traders being Fred Whibley on Niutao and Alfred Restieaux on Nukufetau, however by 1909 there were no resident palagi traders representing the trading companies[27] although both Fred Whibley and Alfred Restieaux remained in the islands until their deaths.

[edit] Scientific expeditions & travellers

The United States Exploring Expedition under Charles Wilkes visited Funafuti, Nukufetau and Vaitupu in 1841.[28] During the visit of the expedition to Tuvalu Alfred Thomas Agate, engraver and illustrator, recorded the dress and tattoo patterns of men of Nukufetau.[29]

In 1890 Robert Louis Stevenson, his wife Fanny Vandegrift Stevenson, and her son Lloyd Osborne sailed on the Janet Nicoll,[30] a trading steamer owned by Henderson and Macfarlane of Auckland, New Zealand, which operated between Sydney, Auckland and into the central Pacific. The Janet Nicoll visited Tuvalu; while Fanny records that they made landfall at Funafuti and Niutao, Jane Resture suggests that it was more likely that they visited Nukufetau rather than Funafuti.[31] An account of the voyage was written by Fanny Vandegrift Stevenson and published under the title The Cruise of the Janet Nichol,[32] together with photographs taken by Robert Louis Stevenson and Lloyd Osborne.

In 1894 Count Rudolph Festetics de Tolna, his wife Eila Festetics (née Haggin) and her daughter Blanche Haggin visited Funafuti aboard the yacht Le Tolna. The Count was somewhat of a character,[33] publishing his account of his voyage through the Pacific, under the title Chez les cannibales.[34] The enduring legacy of the Count are the photographs taken on Funafuti.[35]

The boreholes on Funafuti at the site now called David's Drill are the result of drilling conducted by the Royal Society of London for the purpose of investigating whether traces of shallow water organisms could be found at depth in the coral. Drilling occurred in 1896, 1897 and 1911. Professor Edgeworth David of the University of Sydney lead the 1897 expedition.[36] Photographers on the expeditions recorded people, communities and scenes at Funafuti.[37]

Harry Clifford Fassett,[38] captain's clerk and photographer, recorded people, communities and scenes at Funafuti during a visit of the steamer Albatross when the U.S. Fish Commission were conducting hydrographic surveys in 1900.[39]

[edit] The Pacific War & operation 'Galvanic"

During the Pacific War Marine Defense Forces landed on Funafuti on October 2, 1942. The Japanese had already occupied Tarawa and other islands in what is now Kiribati, A Naval Construction Battalion (Seabees) built compacted coral runways at Funafuti with satellites airfields on both Nanumea and Nukufetau. The Seabees also blasted an opening in the reef at Nanumea, which became known as the 'American Passage'.[40] Building the runway at Funafuti involved the loss of land used for growing pulaka and taro with extensive excavation of coral from what are still known as the borrow pits. The runway continues in use today as Funafuti International Airport.

While Funafuti suffered air attacks during 1943, casualties were limited, although on one occasion in April 1943, 680 people took refuge in the concrete walled, pandanus-thatched church. Fortunately an American soldier, Corporal B. F. Ladd, persuaded them to get into dugouts, as a bomb struck the building shortly after. [41] Tuvalu acted as a staging post for the invasions of Makin atoll and Tarawa atoll which commenced on 20 November 1943, which was the implementation of operation 'Galvanic'.[42] taro is used to grow all kind of things so like they also eat the taro .

[edit] Politics

Tuvalu is a Parliamentary Democracy and Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II serving as the country's head of state, bearing the title Queen of Tuvalu. The Queen does not reside in the islands and is represented in Tuvalu by a Governor General, who is appointed by the Queen upon the advice of the country's elected Prime Minister. The local unicameral parliament, or Fale I Fono, has 15 members and is elected every four years. Its members select a Prime Minister who is the head of government. The Cabinet is appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Each island also has its own high-chief or ulu-aliki, and several sub-chiefs (alikis) and elders. The elders form together an island council of elders or te sina o fenua (literally:"grey-hairs of the land"). In the past, another caste, namely the one of the priests (tofuga) was also amongst the decision-makers. The sina o fenua, aliki and ulu-aliki exercise informal authority on a local level. Ulu-aliki are always chosen based on ancestry, and their powers are now shared with the pule o kaupule (elected village presidents; one on each atoll).[43] There are no formal political parties and election campaigns are largely on the basis of personal/family ties and reputation.

The highest court in Tuvalu is the High Court; there are eight Island Courts with limited jurisdiction. Rulings from the High Court can be appealed to the Court of Appeal of Tuvalu. From the Court of Appeal there is a right of appeal to Her Majesty in Council, i.e., the Privy Council in London.

[edit] Defence

Tuvalu has no regular military forces, and spends no money on the military. Its police force includes a Maritime Surveillance Unit for search and rescue missions and surveillance operations. The police have a Pacific-class patrol boat (HMTSS Te Mataili) provided by Australia under the Pacific Patrol Boat Program for use in maritime surveillance and fishery patrol.[44] HMTSS stands for His/Her Majesty's Tuvaluan State Ship or His/Her Majesty's Tuvalu Surveillance Ship.

[edit] Districts

Map of Tuvalu.[45]

Tuvalu's small population is distributed across nine islands, five of which are atolls.[45] The smallest island, Niulakita, was uninhabited until it was settled by people from Niutao in 1949.

Local government districts consisting of more than one islet:

Local government districts consisting of only one island:

[edit] Foreign relations

Tuvalu maintains close relations with Fiji, New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom. It has diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan); the ROC maintains the only resident embassy in Tuvalu and has a large assistance program in the islands. Tuvalu has maintained a mission at the UN in New York City since 2000.. A major international priority for Tuvalu in the UN, at the 2002 Earth Summit in Johannesburg, South Africa and in other international fora is promoting concern about global warming and possible sea level rise. Tuvalu advocates ratification and implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In December 2009 the islands stalled talks on climate change at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, fearing some other developing countries were not committing fully to binding deals on a reduction in carbon emission, their chief negotiator stated "Tuvalu is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to climate change, and our future rests on the outcome of this meeting."[46] It also is a member of the Asian Development Bank. Tuvalu is a party to a treaty of friendship with the United States, signed soon after independence and ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1983, under which the United States renounced prior territorial claims to four Tuvaluan islands under the Guano Act.[47] Tuvalu is also a member of the Parties to the Nauru Agreement.[48]

[edit] Geography

A beach at Funafuti atoll on a sunny day.

Tuvalu consists of three reef islands and six true atolls. Its small, scattered group of atolls have poor soil and a total land area of only about 26 square kilometres (less than 10 sq. mi.) making it the fourth smallest country in the world. The land is very low lying with narrow coral atolls. Funafuti is the largest atoll of the nine low reef islands and atolls that form the Tuvalu volcanic island chain. It comprises numerous islets around a central lagoon that is approximately 25.1 kilometres (15.6 mi) (N–S) by 18.4 kilometres (11.4 mi) (W-E), centred on 179°7’E and 8°30’S. An annular reef rim surrounds the lagoon, with several natural reef channels.[citation needed]

The highest elevation is 4.5 metres (15 ft) above sea level,[49] which gives Tuvalu the second-lowest maximum elevation of any country (after the Maldives). Because of this low elevation, the islands that make up this nation may be threatened by any future sea level rise. Under such circumstances, the population may evacuate to New Zealand, Niue or the Fijian island of Kioa. Additionally, efforts are underway by researchers in Japan to rebuild the reefs through introduction of foraminifer.[50]

Additionally, Tuvalu is affected by what is known as a king tide, which can raise the sea level higher than a normal high tide.[51] In the future, this may threaten to submerge the nation entirely as it is estimated that a sea level rise of 20–40 centimetres (8–16 inches) in the next 100 years could make Tuvalu uninhabitable.[52][53] Tuvalu has very poor land and the soil is hardly usable for agriculture. Drinking water is mostly obtained from rainwater collected on roofs and stored in tanks; these systems are often poorly maintained, resulting in lack of water.[54] Tuvalu has westerly gales and heavy rain from November to March and tropical temperatures moderated by easterly winds from March to November.

[edit] Tourism

The main island of Funafuti is the focus of travelers, as the only airport in Tuvalu is the Funafuti International Airport, with the island having hotel accommodation.[55] Ecotourism is a motivation of travelers to Tuvalu. The Funafuti Conservation Area consists of 33 square kilometers of ocean, reef, lagoon, channel and islands habitats with the Funafuti Conservation Area including six uninhabited islets.[56]

The outer atolls can be visited on the two passenger/cargo ships Nivaga II and Manu Folau, which provide a round trip visiting the outer islands every three or four weeks.[57] There is no tourist accommodation on the outer atolls.

[edit] Economy

Tuvalu has almost no natural resources, and its main form of income consists of foreign aid[citation needed]. Virtually the only jobs in the islands that pay a steady wage or salary are with the government.[citation needed] Subsistence farming and fishing remain the primary economic activities, particularly off the capital island of Funafuti. Government revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and coins, fishing licences and worker remittances.[citation needed]

About 800 Tuvaluans previously worked in Nauru in the phosphate mining industry or aboard foreign ships as sailors. When phosphate mining ceased in Nauru, 378 Tuvaluans were stranded in the country until they were repatriated in 2006 by a joint programme in which Australia, New Zealand, and the EU paid most of the cost of their return passage, and Taiwan paid the back wages they were owed.[58] Substantial income is received annually from the Tuvalu Trust Fund, which was established in 1987 by Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom and supported also by Japan and South Korea. This fund grew from an initial $17 million to over $35 million in 1999. The US government is also a major revenue source for Tuvalu, with 1999 payments from a 1988 treaty on fisheries at about $9 million, a total which is expected to rise annually.

In 1998, Tuvalu began deriving revenue from use of its area code for "900" lines and from the sale of its ".tv" Internet domain name.[59]

Because of the country's remoteness, tourism does not provide much income; a thousand tourists are estimated to visit Tuvalu annually.[60]

[edit] Demographics

The country's population has more than doubled since 1980 and was estimated to reach 11,810 in July 2006.[61] The population of Tuvalu is primarily of Polynesian ethnicity; about 4% of the population is Micronesian.

The Tuvaluan language is spoken by virtually everyone, while a language very similar to Gilbertese is spoken on Nui. English is also an official language, but is not spoken in daily use. Parliament and official functions are conducted in Tuvaluan.

The introduction of Christianity ended the worship of the spirits of ancestors and other deities, along with the power of the vaka-atua (the priests of the old religions).[62] About 97% of the Tuvaluans are members of the Church of Tuvalu, a Protestant Christian church. Tuvaluans continue to have respect for their ancestors within the context of a strong Christian faith.

Other religions practised on the island include Seventh-day Adventist (1.4%) and Bahá'í (1%).[61] Also the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community claims 400 members (3%) in Tuvalu.[63]

[edit] Culture

[edit] Heritage

The traditional community system still survives to a large extent on Tuvalu. Each family has its own task, or salanga, to perform for the community, such as fishing, house building or defence. The skills of a family are passed on from parents to children. Most islands have their own fusi, or government owned shops.[64] Similar to a convenience store, you can buy canned foods and bags of rice, but goods are cheaper and fusis give better prices for their own goods because of government subsidy.[citation needed] Another important building is the falekaupule or village hall, where important matters are discussed and which is used with certain events.

[edit] Cuisine

The traditional foods eaten in Tuvalu are pulaka, seafood (crab, turtle, some fish), bananas, breadfruit, coconut, and pork.

Pulaka is the main source for carbohydrates. It is grown in large pits below the watertable in composted soil. Seafood is the main source of protein. Bananas and breadfruit are supplemental crops. Finally, coconut is used for its juice, making beverages and to make food tastier. Pork is eaten most with fateles (or parties with dance to celebrate certain events).[citation needed]

[edit] Language

Tuvaluan is a Polynesian language of the Ellicean group spoken in Tuvalu. It is more or less distantly related to all other Polynesian languages, such as Hawaiian, Māori, Tahitian, Samoan, and Tongan, and most closely related to the languages spoken on the Polynesian Outliers in Micronesia and Northern and Central Melanesia. Tuvaluan has borrowed considerably from Samoan, the language of Christian missionaries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. There are about 13,000 Tuvaluan speakers worldwide.

[edit] Sport and leisure

A traditional sport played in Tuvalu is kilikiti, which is similar to cricket.[65] Another sport popular and specific to Tuvalu is ano, which is played with 2 round balls of 12 cm diameter. More common sports such as football, volleyball and rugby union are also played in the country as recreational activities. Tuvalu has a national football team and competes officially with local nations, despite not being a FIFA member. However, there are no records of a rugby team, in either code, and rugby remains undeveloped in the country, despite its great popularity.[66]

There are no training facilities for any sport in the country. Tuvalu entered the Olympic Games for the first time at the 2008 summer games in Beijing, China, sending three competitors in two events.

[edit] Music

[edit] Transport

Transport services in Tuvalu are limited. There are about eight kilometres of roads.[61] The streets of Funafuti were paved and lit in mid-2002, and other roads are unpaved. Tuvalu is among a few countries that do not have railroads.

Funafuti is the only port, and there is also a deep-water berth in the harbour at Nukufetau. The merchant marine fleet consists of two passenger/cargo ships Nivaga II and Manu Folau. These ships carry cargo and passengers between the main atolls and also travel between Suva, Fiji[67] and Funafuti[68]3-4 times a year. The Nivaga II and Manu Folau provide a round trip visiting the outer islands every three or four weeks. The Manu Folau is a 50-meter vessel that was a gift from Japan to the people of Tuvalu.

The only airport is Funafuti International Airport; it is a tarred strip. Air Pacific, which owns Fiji Airlines, trading as Pacific Sun operates services between Suva (originating from Nadi) and Funafuti.

[edit] Education

Education in Tuvalu is free of charge and compulsory between the ages of 6 and 15 years.[69]

Each island has a primary school. The secondary school is on Vaitupu. Students board at the school during the school term, returning to their home islands each school vacation. In 1998, the gross and net primary school enrollment rates were 100 percent.[69] Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Tuvalu as of 2001.[69] While enrollment rates indicate a level of commitment to education, they do not always reflect children’s participation in school.[69]

[edit] Climate change

At its highest, Tuvalu is only 4.5 m above sea level, and officials have been concerned about the effects of rising sea levels for some years.[70]

As low-lying islands, lacking a surrounding shallow shelf, the island communities of Tuvalu are especially susceptible to changes in sea level and storm patterns that hit the island undissipated. It is estimated that a sea level rise of 20–40 centimetres (8–16 inches) in the next 100 years could make Tuvalu uninhabitable.[52][71] The South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) suggests that while Tuvalu is vulnerable to climate change there are additional environmental problems such as population growth and poor coastal management that are affecting sustainable development on the island. SOPAC ranks the country as extremely vulnerable using the Environmental Vulnerability Index.[72]

While some commentators have called for the relocation of the population of Tuvalu to Australia, New Zealand, or Kioa (Fiji), the former Prime Minister Maatia Toafa said his government did not regard rising sea levels as such a threat that the entire population would need to be evacuated.[73][74] In spite of persistent Internet rumours that New Zealand has agreed to accept an annual quota of 75 evacuees, the annual residence quota of 75 Tuvaluans under the Pacific Access Category (and 50 places for people from Kiribati) replaced the previous Work Schemes from the two countries and are not related to environmental concerns.[75]

At the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference in December 2009, Tuvalu's spokesman Ian Fry was one of the strongest critics of the final document, stating "It looks like we are being offered thirty pieces of silver to betray our people and our future."[76]

By March 4, 2011, modern day life had badly reduced fish stocks. Saline seawater seeped inland on Funafuti atoll, the capital of Tuvalu, due to rising sea levels as a result of climate change. Sea pollution has been destroying their sustainable way of life.[77]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tv.html. Retrieved 14 Apr. 2009. 
  2. ^ http://www.tuvaluislands.com/
  3. ^ A Directory for the Navigation of the Pacific Ocean: With Description of Its Coasts, Islands, Etc. from the Strait of Magalhaens to the Arctic Sea
  4. ^ Howe, Kerry (2003). The Quest for Origins. New Zealand: Penguin. pp. 68, 70. ISBN 0-14-301857-4. 
  5. ^ Keith S. Chambers & Doug Munro, The Mystery of Gran Cocal: European Discovery and Mis-Discovery in Tuvalu, 89(2) (1980) The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 167-198
  6. ^ Laumua Kofe, Palagi and Pastors, Tuvalu: A History, Ch. 15, (U.S.P./Tuvalu)
  7. ^ Miscellanies: by an officer, Volume 1, Ch. LXXX By John Watts De Peyster, A.E. Chasmer & Co. (1888)
  8. ^ Laumua Kofe, Palagi and Pastors, Tuvalu: A History, Ch. 15, Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific and Government of Tuvalu, 1983
  9. ^ Laumua Kofe, Palagi and Pastors, Tuvalu: A History, Ch. 15, Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific and Government of Tuvalu, 1983
  10. ^ Laumua Kofe, Palagi and Pastors, Tuvalu: A History, Ch. 15, Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific and Government of Tuvalu, 1983
  11. ^ E. Maude, Slavers in Paradise, Institute of Pacific Studies (1981)
  12. ^ Murray A.W., 1876. Forty Years' Mission Work. London Nisbet
  13. ^ the figure of 171 taken from Funafuti is given by Laumua Kofe, Palagi and Pastors, Tuvalu: A History, Ch. 15, Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific and Government of Tuvalu, 1983
  14. ^ the figure of 250 taken from Nukulaelae is given by Laumua Kofe, Palagi and Pastors, Tuvalu: A History, Ch. 15, Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific and Government of Tuvalu, 1983
  15. ^ W.F. Newton, The Early Population of the Ellice Islands, 76(2) (1967) The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 197-204.
  16. ^ the figure of 250 taken from Nukulaelae is stated by Richard Bedford, Barrie Macdonald & Doug Monro, Population Estimates for Kiribati and Tuvalu (1980) 89(1) J. of the Polynesian Society 199
  17. ^ Laumua Kofe, Palagi and Pastors, Tuvalu: A History, Ch. 15, Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific and Government of Tuvalu, 1983
  18. ^ Laumua Kofe, Palagi and Pastors, Tuvalu: A History, Ch. 15, Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific and Government of Tuvalu, 1983
  19. ^ Doug Munro, The Lives and Times of Resident Traders In Tuvalu: An Exercise in History from Below, (1987) 10(2) Pacific Studies 73
  20. ^ The Circular Saw Shipping Line. Anthony G. Flude. 1993. (Chapter 7)
  21. ^ Doug Munro, The Lives and Times of Resident Traders In Tuvalu: An Exercise in History from Below, (1987) 10(2) Pacific Studies 73
  22. ^ Doug Munro, The Lives and Times of Resident Traders In Tuvalu: An Exercise in History from Below, (1987) 10(2) Pacific Studies 73
  23. ^ Doug Munro, The Lives and Times of Resident Traders In Tuvalu: An Exercise in History from Below, (1987) 10(2) Pacific Studies 73
  24. ^ Jane Resture, TUVALU HISTORY - The Davis Diaries (H.M.S. Royalist,1892 visit to Ellice Islands under Captain Davis) http://www.janeresture.com/tuvalu_davis/index.htm
  25. ^ http://www.tuvaluislands.com/history.htm
  26. ^ Doug Munro, The Lives and Times of Resident Traders In Tuvalu: An Exercise in History from Below, (1987) 10(2) Pacific Studies 73
  27. ^ Doug Munro, The Lives and Times of Resident Traders In Tuvalu: An Exercise in History from Below, (1987) 10(2) Pacific Studies 73, citing, Mahaffy, Arthur 1909 “Report . . . on the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Protectorates.” CO 225/86/26804; Wallin, F. 1910 “Report of 30 January 1910 on the Gilbert, Ellice and Marshall Islands”, BPh
  28. ^ Tyler, David B. - 1968 The Wilkes Expedition. The First United States Exploring Expedition (1838-42). Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society
  29. ^ The extensive report of the expedition has been digitized by the Smithsonian Institution. The visit to Tuvalu is described in Chapter 2 in volume 5, pp. 35-75, 'Ellice's and Kingsmill's Group', http://www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollections/usexex/
  30. ^ “Janet Nicoll is the correct spelling of trading steamer owned by Henderson and Macfarlane of Auckland, New Zealand, which operated between Sydney, Auckland and into the central Pacific. Fanny Vandegrift Stevenson miss-names the ship as the “Janet Nicol in her account of the 1890 voyage
  31. ^ The Tuvalu Visit of Robert Louis Stevenson, http://www.janeresture.com/rls/index.htm
  32. ^ The Cruise of the Janet Nichol among the South Sea Islands A Diary by Mrs Robert Louis Stevenson (first published 1914), republished 2004, editor, Roslyn Jolly (U. of Washington Press/U. of New South Wales Press)
  33. ^ http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/tolna.htm
  34. ^ Festetics De Tolna, Comte Rodolphe, Chez les cannibales: huit ans de croisière dans l'océan Pacifique à bord du, Paris : Plon-Nourrit, 1903
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