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Kazakhstan

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Republic of Kazakhstan
Қазақстан Республикасы
Qazaqstan Respublïkası
Республика Казахстан
Respublika Kazakhstan
Flag Emblem
AnthemМенің Қазақстаным
Kazakhstan 2006.ogg
(Kazakh)
Meniñ Qazaqstanım (transcription)
"My Kazakhstan"

Capital Astana
51°10′N 71°30′E / 51.167°N 71.5°E / 51.167; 71.5
Largest city Almaty
Official language(s) Kazakh (1st official language)
Russian (2nd official (spoken by most Kazakhstanis))
Ethnic groups  (2009 census)
63.1% Kazakh
23.7% Russian
2.9% Uzbek
2.1% Ukrainian
1.4% Uyghur
1.3% Tatar
1.1% German
4.5% Other
[1]
Demonym Kazakhstani[2]
Government Presidential republic
 -  President Nursultan Nazarbayev
 -  Prime Minister Karim Massimov
Independence from the Soviet Union 
 -  Kazakh Khanate 1465 
 -  Alash Autonomy December 13, 1917 
 -  Kazakh SSR December 5, 1936 
 -  Declared December 16, 1991 
 -  Finalized December 25, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 2,724,900 km2 (9th)
1,052,085 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.7
Population
 -  2011 estimate 16,455,000[1] (62nd)
 -  2009 census 16,004,800[1] 
 -  Density 5.94/km2 (224th)
15.39/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $196.399 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $12,602[3] 
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $138.429 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $8,883[3] 
Gini (2008) 28.8[4] (low
HDI (2010) increase 0.714[5] (high) (66th)
Currency Tenge (Tenge symbol.svg) (KZT)
Time zone West/East (UTC+5/6)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code KZ
Internet TLD .kz
Calling code +7-6xx, +7-7xx

Kazakhstan (Listeni /ˌkɑːzəkˈstɑːn/ or /ˌkæzəkˈstæn/) (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, pronounced [qɑzɑqstɑ́n]; Russian: Казахстан [kəzɐxˈstan]), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of 2,727,300 km² is greater than Western Europe.[6][7] Kazakhstan is one of the six independent Turkic states. Kazakhstan is one of the active members of the Turkic Council and the TÜRKSOY community which is currently being directed by the former Minister of Culture of Kazakhstan. It is neighbored clockwise from the north by Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and also borders on a significant part of the Caspian Sea. Although Kazakhstan does not share a border with Mongolia, its eastern-most point is only 38 kilometres (24 mi) from Monglia's western tip. The capital was moved in 1997 from Almaty (formely Alma-Ata), Kazakhstan's largest city, to Astana.

Vast in size, the terrain of Kazakhstan ranges from flatlands, steppes, taigas, rock-canyons, hills, deltas, and snow-capped mountains to deserts. With 16.4 million people (2010 estimate)[8] Kazakhstan has the 62nd largest population in the world, though its population density is less than 6 people per square kilometre (15 per sq. mi.).

For most of its history, the territory of modern-day Kazakhstan has been inhabited by nomadic tribes. By the 16th century, the Kazakhs emerged as a distinct group, divided into three Jüz. The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century all of Kazakhstan was part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganized several times before becoming the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936, a part of the USSR. During the 20th century, Kazakhstan was the site of major Soviet projects, including Khrushchev's Virgin Lands campaign, the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and the Semipalatinsk "Polygon", the USSR's primary nuclear weapon testing site.

Kazakhstan declared itself an independent country on December 16, 1991, the last Soviet republic to do so. Its communist-era leader, Nursultan Nazarbayev, became the country's new president. Since independence, Kazakhstan has pursued a balanced foreign policy and worked to develop its economy, especially its hydrocarbon industry. While the country's economic outlook is improving, President Nazarbayev maintains strict control over the country's politics. Nevertheless, Kazakhstan's international prestige is building.[9] It is now considered to be the dominant state in Central Asia.[10] The country is a member of many international organizations, including the United Nations, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Kazakhstan is one of six post-Soviet states who have implemented an Individual Partnership Action Plan with NATO. In 2010, Kazakhstan chaired the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.

Kazakhstan is ethnically and culturally diverse, in part due to mass deportations of many ethnic groups to the country during Stalin's rule. Kazakhs are the largest group. Kazakhstan has 131 ethnicities, including Kazakh, Russian, Uyghur, Ukrainian, Uzbek, and Tatar. It has a population of 16.2 million, of whom around 63% percent are Kazakhs.[1]

Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion, and many different beliefs are represented in the country. Islam is the religion of about two thirds of the population, and Christianity the faith of most of the remainder. The Kazakh language is the state language, while Russian is also officially used as an "equal" language (to Kazakh) in Kazakhstan's institutions.[11]

Contents

History

Etymology

The term Kazakhstani (Kazakh: қазақстандықтар, Qazaqstandıqtar; Russian: казахстанцы, kazakhstantsy) was coined to describe all citizens of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs.[12] The word "Kazakh" is generally used to refer to people of ethnic Kazakh descent (including those living in China, Afghanistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan and other countries).

The ethnonym Kazakh is derived from an ancient Turkic word meaning "independent, a free spirit". It is the result of Kazakhs' nomadic horseback culture. The Avestan/Old Persian (See Indo-European languages) word "-stan" means "land" or "place of", so "Kazakhstan" is "land of the Kazakhs".

Kazakh Khanate

Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Neolithic Age: the region's climate and terrain are best suited for nomads practicing pastoralism. Archaeologists believe that humans first domesticated the horse in the region's vast steppes.

Central Asia proper was originally inhabited by Indo-Iranians. The best known of those groups was the nomadic Scythians.[13] The Turkic people began imbricating on the Iranians starting at least in the 5th century AD, possibly before. They became the dominant ethnic component of Central Asia. While ancient cities Taraz (Aulie-Ata) and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting East and West, real political consolidation only began with the Mongol invasion of the early 13th century. Under the Mongol Empire, administrative districts were established, and these eventually came under the emergent Kazakh Khanate (Kazakhstan).

Artistic depiction of Ancient Taraz

Throughout this period, traditionally nomadic life and a livestock-based economy continued to dominate the steppe. In the 15th century, a distinct Kazakh identity began to emerge among the Turkic tribes, a process which was consolidated by the mid-16th century with the appearance of a distinctive Kazakh language, culture, and economy.

Nevertheless, the region was the focus of ever-increasing disputes between the native Kazakh emirs and the neighbouring Persian-speaking peoples to the south. By the early 17th century, the Kazakh Khanate was struggling with the impact of tribal rivalries, which had effectively divided the population into the Great, Middle and Little (or Small) Hordes (jüz). Political disunion, tribal rivalries, and the diminishing importance of overland trade routes between East and West weakened the Kazakh Khanate.

During the 17th century Kazakhs fought Oirats, a federation of western Mongol tribes, including Dzungars.[14] The beginning of the 18th century marked the zenith of the Kazakh Khanate. During this period the Little Horde participated in the 1723–1730 war against the Dzungars, following their "Great Disaster" invasion of Kazakh territories. The Dzungars seized the pastures of the defeated Kazakhs, taking many captives, and slaughtering entire clans.[15] Under the leadership of Abul Khair Khan, the Kazakhs won major victories over the Dzungar at the Bulanty River in 1726, and at the Battle of Anrakay in 1729.[16] Ablai Khan participated in the most significant battles against the Dzungars from the 1720s to the 1750s, for which he was declared a "batyr" ("hero") by the people. Kazakhs were also victims of constant raids carried out by the Volga Kalmyks.

Russian Empire

In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to expand into Central Asia. The "Great Game" period is generally regarded as running from approximately 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. The tsars effectively ruled over most of the territory belonging to what is now the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Abay Qunanbayuli, Kazakh poet, composer and philosopher

The Russian Empire introduced a system of administration and built military garrisons and barracks in its effort to establish a presence in Central Asia in the so-called "Great Game" between it and the British Empire. The first Russian outpost, Orsk, was built in 1735. Russia enforced the Russian language in all schools and governmental organizations. Russian efforts to impose its system aroused the resentment by the Kazakh people, and by the 1860s, most Kazakhs resisted Russia's annexation largely because of the influence it wrought upon the traditional nomadic lifestyle and livestock-based economy, and the associated hunger that was rapidly wiping out some Kazakh tribes. The Kazakh national movement, which began in the late 19th century, sought to preserve the native language and identity by resisting the attempts of the Russian Empire to assimilate and stifle them.

From the 1890s onwards, ever-larger numbers of settlers from the Russian Empire began colonising the territory of present-day Kazakhstan, in particular the province of Semirechye. The number of settlers rose still further once the Trans-Aral Railway from Orenburg to Tashkent was completed in 1906, and the movement was overseen and encouraged by a specially created Migration Department (Переселенческое Управление) in St. Petersburg. During the 19th century about 400,000 Russians immigrated to Kazakhstan, and about one million Slavs, Germans, Jews, and others immigrated to the region during the first third of the 20th century.[17]

The competition for land and water that ensued between the Kazakhs and the newcomers caused great resentment against colonial rule during the final years of Tsarist Russia, with the most serious uprising, the Central Asian Revolt, occurring in 1916. The Kazakhs attacked Russian and Cossack settlers and military garrisons. The revolt resulted in a series of clashes and in brutal massacres committed by both sides.[18]

Kazakh SSR

Although there was a brief period of autonomy (Alash Autonomy) during the tumultuous period following the collapse of the Russian Empire, many uprisings were brutally suppressed, and the Kazakhs eventually succumbed to Soviet rule. In 1920, the area of present-day Kazakhstan became an autonomous republic within the Soviet Union.

Almaty, the Soviet-era capital of Kazakhstan

Soviet repression of the traditional elite, along with forced collectivization in the late 1920s–1930s, brought mass hunger and led to unrest (see also: Soviet famine of 1932–1933).[19][20] Between 1926 and 1939, the Kazakh population declined by 22% due to starvation and mass emigration. Estimates today suggest that the population of Kazakhstan would be closer to 20 million if there had been no starvation or migration of Kazakhs. During the 1930s, many renowned Kazakh writers, thinkers, poets, politicians and historians were slaughtered on Stalin's orders, both as part of the repression and as a methodical pattern of suppressing Kazakh identity and culture. Soviet rule took hold, and a Communist apparatus steadily worked to fully integrate Kazakhstan into the Soviet system. In 1936 Kazakhstan became a Soviet republic. Kazakhstan experienced population inflows of millions exiled from other parts of the Soviet Union during the 1930s and 1940s; many of the deportation victims were deported to Siberia or Kazakhstan merely due to their ethnic heritage or beliefs, and were in many cases interned in some of the biggest Soviet labour camps, including ALZHIR camp outside Astana, which was reserved for the wives of men considered "enemies of the people" [21] (see also: Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union). The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic contributed five national divisions to the Soviet Union's World War II effort. In 1947, two years after the end of the war, the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the USSR's main nuclear weapon test site, was founded near the city of Semey.

World War II marked an increase in industrialisation and increased mineral extraction in support of the war effort. At the time of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's death, however, Kazakhstan still had an overwhelmingly agricultural-based economy. In 1953, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev initiated the ambitious "Virgin Lands" program to turn the traditional pasture lands of Kazakhstan into a major grain-producing region for the Soviet Union. The Virgin Lands policy brought mixed results. However, along with later modernizations under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, it accelerated the development of the agricultural sector, which remains the source of livelihood for a large percentage of Kazakhstan's population. By 1959, Kazakhs made up 30% of the population. Ethnic Russians accounted for 43%.[22]

Growing tensions within Soviet society led to a demand for political and economic reforms, which came to a head in the 1980s. A factor that contributed to this immensely was Lavrentii Beria's decision to test a nuclear bomb on the territory of Kazakh SSR in Semey in 1949. This had a catastrophic ecological and biological effect that was felt generations later, and Kazakh anger toward the Soviet system escalated.

In December 1986, mass demonstrations by young ethnic Kazakhs, later called Jeltoqsan riot, took place in Almaty to protest the replacement of the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR Dinmukhamed Konayev with Gennady Kolbin from the Russian SFSR. Governmental troops suppressed the unrest, several people were killed and many demonstrators were jailed. In the waning days of Soviet rule, discontent continued to grow and find expression under Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of glasnost.

Independence

The Bayterek tower in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan

Caught up in the groundswell of Soviet republics seeking greater autonomy, Kazakhstan declared its sovereignty as a republic within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in October 1990. Following the August 1991 aborted coup attempt in Moscow and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan declared independence on December 16, 1991. It was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence.

The years following independence have been marked by significant reforms to the Soviet-style economy and political monopoly on power. Under Nursultan Nazarbayev, who initially came to power in 1989 as the head of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and was eventually elected President in 1991, Kazakhstan has made significant progress toward developing a market economy. The country has enjoyed significant economic growth since 2000, partly due to its large oil, gas, and mineral reserves.

Democracy, however, has not gained much ground since 1991.[23] In 2007, Kazakhstan's parliament passed a law granting President Nursultan Nazarbayev lifetime powers and privileges, immunity from criminal prosecution, and influence over domestic and foreign policy.[23][24] Critics say he has become a de facto "president for life."[24][25][26]

Over the course of his twenty years in power, Nazarbayev has repeatedly censored the press through arbitrary use of "privacy" laws,[27] and refused demands that the governors of Kazakhstan's 14 provinces be elected, rather than appointed by the president. However, there are still no cases based on this law.

Politics

Political system

President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev

Kazakhstan is officially a presidential republic but displays strong authoritarian characteristics. The first and only president is Nursultan Nazarbayev. The president is also the commander in chief of the armed forces and may veto legislation that has been passed by the Parliament. The prime minister chairs the Cabinet of Ministers and serves as Kazakhstan's head of government. There are three deputy prime ministers and 16 ministers in the Cabinet. Karim Massimov has served as the Prime Minister since January 10, 2007.

Kazakhstan has a bicameral Parliament composed of the lower house (the Majilis) and upper house (the Senate). Single mandate districts popularly elect 67 seats in the Majilis; there also are 10 members elected by party-list vote rather than by single mandate districts. The Senate has 39 members. Two senators are selected by each of the elected assemblies (Maslikhats) of Kazakhstan's 16 principal administrative divisions (14 provinces, plus the cities of Astana and Almaty). The president appoints the remaining 7 senators. Majilis deputies and the government both have the right of legislative initiative, though the government proposes most legislation considered by the Parliament.

Elections

Elections to the Majilis in September 2004 yielded a lower house dominated by the pro-government Otan Party, headed by President Nazarbayev. Two other parties considered sympathetic to the president, including the agrarian-industrial bloc AIST and the Asar Party, founded by President Nazarbayev's daughter, won most of the remaining seats. Opposition parties, which were officially registered and competed in the elections, won a single seat during elections that the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe said fell short of international standards.

In 1999, Kazakhstan applied for observer status at the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. The official response of the Assembly was that Kazakhstan could apply for full membership, because it is partially located in Europe, but that they would not be granted any status whatsoever at the Council until their democracy and human rights records improved.

A sign for the Otan (Fatherland) Party, the ruling party of Kazakhstan

On December 4, 2005, Nursultan Nazarbayev was reelected in a landslide victory. The electoral commission announced that he had won over 90% of the vote. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) concluded the election did not meet international standards despite some improvements in the administration of the election. Xinhua News Agency reported that observers from the People's Republic of China, responsible in overseeing 25 polling stations in Astana, found that voting in those polls was conducted in a "transparent and fair" manner.[28]

On August 17, 2007, elections to the lower house of parliament were held and a coalition led by the ruling Nur-Otan Party, which included Asar Party, Civil Party of Kazakhstan and Agrarian Party, won every seat with 88% of the vote. None of the opposition parties have reached the benchmark 7% level of the seats. This has led some in the local media to question the competence and charisma of the opposition party leaders. Opposition parties made accusations of serious irregularities in the election.[29][30]

Foreign relations

Kazakhstani President Nursultan Nazarbayev with then U.S. President George W. Bush, 2006

Kazakhstan has stable relationships with all of its neighbors. Kazakhstan is also a member of the United Nations, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). It is an active participant in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Partnership for Peace program.

Kazakhstan is also a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Economic Cooperation Organization and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. The nations of Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan established the Eurasian Economic Community in 2000 to re-energize earlier efforts at harmonizing trade tariffs and the creation of a free trade zone under a customs union. On December 1, 2007, it was revealed that Kazakhstan has been chosen to chair OSCE for the year 2010.

Since independence in 1991, Kazakhstan has pursued what is known as the "multivector foreign policy" (Kazakh: көпвекторлы сыртқы саясат; mnogovektornaya vneshnyaya politika), seeking equally good relations with two large neighbors, Russia and China, and the United States and the West in general.[31][32] The policy has yielded results in the oil and gas sector, where companies from the U.S., Russia, China, and Europe are present at all major fields, and in the multidimensional directions of oil export pipelines out of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan also enjoys strong, and rapidly developing, political and economic ties with Turkey. Kazakhstan formed a customs union with Russia and Belarus which will be transformed into a common economic space soon.

Russia currently leases approximately 6,000 km² (2,300 mi²) of territory enclosing the Baikonur Cosmodrome space launch site in south central Kazakhstan, where the first man was launched into space as well as Soviet space shuttle Buran and the well-known space station Mir.

Military

Kazakhstani Republican Guard

Most of Kazakhstan's military was inherited from the Soviet Armed Forces' Turkestan Military District. These units became the core of Kazakhstan's new military which acquired all the units of the 40th Army (the former 32nd Army) and part of the 17th Army Corps, including 6 land force divisions, storage bases, the 14th and 35th air-landing brigades, 2 rocket brigades, 2 artillery regiments and a large amount of equipment which had been withdrawn from over the Urals after the signing of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. The largest expansion of the Kazakhstan Army has been focused on armored units in recent years. Since 1990, armored units have expanded from 500 to 1,613 in 2005.

The Kazakh air force is composed mostly of Soviet-era planes, including 41 MiG-29s, 44 MiG-31s, 37 Su-24s and 60 Su-27s. A small naval force is also maintained on the Caspian Sea.

Kazakhstan sent 49 military engineers to Iraq to assist the US post-invasion mission in Iraq.

Kazakhstan's National Security Committee (KNB) was established on June 13, 1992. It includes the Service of Internal Security, Military Counterintelligence, Border Guard, several Commando units, and Foreign Intelligence (Barlau). The latter is considered as the most important part of KNB. Its director is Nurtai Abykayev.

Geography

Map of Kazakhstan

With an area of 2.7 million square kilometres (1.05 million sq. mi), Kazakhstan is the ninth-largest country and the largest landlocked country in the world. It is equivalent to the size of Western Europe. In the Soviet Union period, Kazakhstan lost some of its territory to China's Xinjiang and some to Uzbekistan's Karakalpakstan. It shares borders of 6,846 kilometres (4,254 mi) with Russia, 2,203 kilometres (1,369 mi) with Uzbekistan, 1,533 kilometres (953 mi) with China, 1,051 kilometres (653 mi) with Kyrgyzstan, and 379 kilometres (235 mi) with Turkmenistan. Major cities include Astana, Almaty, Karagandy, Shymkent, Atyrau and Oskemen. It lies between latitudes 40° and 56° N, and longitudes 46° and 88° E. While located primarily in Asia, a small portion of Kazakhstan is also located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe.[33]

Charyn Canyon in northern Tian Shan
In the steppes of Kazakhstan (Aqmola Province)

The terrain extends west to east from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the oases and deserts of Central Asia. The Kazakh Steppe (plain), with an area of around 804,500 square kilometres (310,600 sq. mi), occupies one-third of the country and is the world's largest dry steppe region. The steppe is characterized by large areas of grasslands and sandy regions. Important rivers and lakes include: the Aral Sea, Ili River, Irtysh River, Ishim River, Ural River, Syr Darya, Charyn River and gorge, Lake Balkhash and Lake Zaysan.

The climate is continental, with warm summers and colder winters. Precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions.

The Charyn Canyon is 150–300 metres deep and 80 kilometres long, cutting through the red sandstone plateau and stretching along the Charyn River gorge in northern Tian Shan ("Heavenly Mountains", 200 km east of Almaty) at 43°21′1.16″N 79°4′49.28″E / 43.3503222°N 79.0803556°E / 43.3503222; 79.0803556. The steep canyon slopes, columns and arches rise to heights of 150–300 m. The inaccessibility of the canyon provided a safe haven for a rare ash tree that survived the Ice Age and is now also grown in some other areas. Bigach crater is a Pliocene or Miocene asteroid impact crater, 8|km in diameter and estimated at 5 ±3 million years old at 48°30′N 82°00′E / 48.5°N 82°E / 48.5; 82.

Administrative divisions

Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces (Kazakh: облыстар, oblıstar). The provinces are subdivided into districts (Kazakh: аудандар, awdandar).

Province Capital Area (km.²) Population
Akmola Kokshetau 121,400 0,829,000
Aktobe Aktobe 300,600 0,661,000
Almaty(1) Almaty 000,324.8 1,226,300
Almaty Province Taldykorgan 224,000 0,860,000
Astana(1) Astana 000,710.2 0,600,200
Atyrau Atyrau 118,600 0,380,000
Baikonur(2) Baikonur 000,057 0,070,000
East Kazakhstan Oskemen 283,300 0,897,000
Jambyl Taraz 144,000 0,962,000
Karagandy Karagandy 428,000 0,446,000
Kostanay Kostanay 196,000 0,975,000
Kyzylorda Kyzylorda 226,000 0,590,000
Mangystau Aktau 165,600 0,316,847
North Kazakhstan Petropavl 123,200 0,586,000
Pavlodar Pavlodar 124,800 0,851,000
South Kazakhstan Shymkent 118,600 2,282,500
West Kazakhstan Oral 151,300 0,599,000
Kazakhstan provinces.svg

Notes:[2]

  • (1) Almaty and Astana cities have the status of State importance and do not relate to any province.
  • (2) Baikonur city has a special status because it is currently being leased to Russia with Baikonur cosmodrome until 2050.

Each province is headed by an Akim (provincial governor) appointed by the president. Municipal Akims are appointed by province Akims. The Government of Kazakhstan transferred its capital from Almaty to Astana on December 10, 1997.

Economy

Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational space launch facility

Buoyed by high world crude oil prices, GDP growth figures were in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008: 9.8%, 13.5%, 9.8%, 9.3%, 9.6%, 9.7%, 10.7%, 8.9% and 3.2% respectively.[34] Other major exports of Kazakhstan include wheat, textiles, and livestock. Kazakhstan predicted that it would become a leading exporter of uranium by 2010, which has indeed come true. [35][36]

GDP in 2010 has grown on 1.1% Inflation. 2005 - 7.6%, 2006 - 8.6%, 2007 - 18.8%, 2008 - 9.5%, 2009 - 6.2%.

Since 2002, Kazakhstan has sought to manage strong inflows of foreign currency without sparking inflation. Inflation has not been under strict control, however, registering 6.6% in 2002, 6.8% in 2003, and 6.4% in 2004.

In 2000, Kazakhstan became the first former Soviet republic to repay all of its debt to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), 7 years ahead of schedule. In March 2002, the U.S. Department of Commerce granted Kazakhstan market economy status under U.S. trade law. This change in status recognized substantive market economy reforms in the areas of currency convertibility, wage rate determination, openness to foreign investment, and government control over the means of production and allocation of resources.

In September 2002, Kazakhstan became the first country in the CIS to receive an investment grade credit rating from a major international credit rating agency. As of late December 2003, Kazakhstan's gross foreign debt was about $22.9 billion. Total governmental debt was $4.2 billion, 14% of GDP. There has been a noticeable reduction in the ratio of debt to GDP. The ratio of total governmental debt to GDP in 2000 was 21.7%; in 2001, it was 17.5%, and in 2002, it was 15.4%.

The capital Astana
Almaty, Kazakhstan's largest city
Kazakhstan Central Concert Hall

Economic growth, combined with earlier tax and financial sector reforms, has dramatically improved government finance from the 1999 budget deficit level of 3.5% of GDP to a deficit of 1.2% of GDP in 2003. Government revenues grew from 19.8% of GDP in 1999 to 22.6% of GDP in 2001, but decreased to 16.2% of GDP in 2003. In 2000, Kazakhstan adopted a new tax code in an effort to consolidate these gains.

On November 29, 2003, the Law on Changes to Tax Code which reduced tax rates was adopted. The value added tax fell from 16% to 15%, the social tax, from 21% to 20%, and the personal income tax, from 30% to 20%. On July 7, 2006, the personal income tax was reduced even further to a flat rate of 5% for personal income in the form of dividends and 10% for other personal income. Kazakhstan furthered its reforms by adopting a new land code on June 20, 2003, and a new customs code on April 5, 2003.

Energy is the leading economic sector. Production of crude oil and natural gas condensate from the oil and gas basins of Kazakhstan amounted to 51.2 million tons in 2003, up 8.6% from the production in 2002. Kazakhstan raised oil and gas condensate exports to 44.3 million tons in 2003, 13% higher than in 2002. Gas production in Kazakhstan in 2003 amounted to 13.9 billion cubic meters (491 billion cu. ft), up 22.7% compared to 2002, including natural gas production of 7.3 billion cubic meters (258 billion cu. ft).

Kazakhstan holds about 4 billion tons of proven recoverable oil reserves and 2,000 cubic kilometers (480 cu mi) of gas. According to industry analysts, expansion of oil production and the development of new fields will enable the country to produce as much as 3 million barrels (477,000 m³) per day by 2015, and Kazakhstan would be among the top 10 oil-producing nations in the world. Kazakhstan's oil exports in 2003 were valued at more than $7 billion, representing 65% of overall exports and 24% of the GDP. Major oil and gas fields and recoverable oil reserves are Tengiz with 7 billion barrels (1.1 km³); Karachaganak with 8 billion barrels (1.3 km³) and 1,350 km³ of natural gas); and Kashagan with 7 to 9 billion barrels (1.1 to 1.4 km³).

Kazakhstan instituted an ambitious pension reform program in 1998. As of January 1, 2005, the pension assets were about $4.1 billion. There are 16 saving pension funds in the country. The State Accumulating Pension Fund, the only state-owned fund, was privatized in 2006. The country's unified financial regulatory agency oversees and regulates the pension funds. The growing demand of the pension funds for quality investment outlets triggered rapid development of the debt securities market. Pension fund capital is being invested almost exclusively in corporate and government bonds, including government of Kazakhstan Eurobonds.

The banking system of Kazakhstan is developing rapidly and the system's capitalization now exceeds $1 billion. The National Bank has introduced deposit insurance in its campaign to strengthen the banking sector. Several major foreign banks have branches in Kazakhstan, including RBS, Citibank, and HSBC. Kookmin and UniCredit have both recently entered the Kazakhstan's financial services market through acquisitions and stake-building.

Despite the strength of Kazakhstan's economy for most of the first decade of the 21st century, the global financial crisis of 2008-2009 has exposed some central weaknesses in the country's economy. The year on year growth of Kazakhstan's GDP dropped 19.81% in 2008. Four of the major banks were rescued by the government at the end of 2008 and real estate prices have sharply dropped.

Agriculture

Agriculture accounted for 10.3% of Kazakhstan's GDP in 2005.[37] Grain (Kazakhstan is the seventh-largest producer in the world) and livestock are the most important agricultural commodities. Agricultural land occupies more than 846,000 square kilometres (327,000 sq mi). The available agricultural land consists of 205,000 square kilometres (79,000 sq mi) of arable land and 611,000 square kilometres (236,000 sq mi) of pasture and hay land.

Chief livestock products are dairy products, leather, meat, and wool. The country's major crops include wheat, barley, cotton, and rice. Wheat exports, a major source of hard currency, rank among the leading commodities in Kazakhstan's export trade. In 2003 Kazakhstan harvested 17.6 million tons of grain in gross, 2.8% higher compared to 2002. Kazakh agriculture still has many environmental problems from mismanagement during its years in the Soviet Union. Some Kazakh wine is produced in the mountains to the east of Almaty.

Kazakhstan is thought to be one of the origins of apple, particularly the wild ancestor of Malus domestica, Malus sieversii.[38] It has no common name in English, but is known in Kazakhstan, where it is native, as 'alma'. In fact, the region where it is thought to originate is called Almaty, or 'rich with apple'.[39] This tree is still found wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China.

Natural resources

Headquarters of KazMunayGaz, the national oil and gas company

Kazakhstan has an abundant supply of accessible mineral and fossil fuel resources. Development of petroleum, natural gas, and mineral extraction has attracted most of the over $40 billion in foreign investment in Kazakhstan since 1993 and accounts for some 57% of the nation's industrial output (or approximately 13% of gross domestic product). According to some estimates,[40] Kazakhstan has the second largest uranium, chromium, lead, and zinc reserves, the third largest manganese reserves, the fifth largest copper reserves, and ranks in the top ten for coal, iron, and gold. It is also an exporter of diamonds. Perhaps most significant for economic development, Kazakhstan also currently has the 11th largest proven reserves of both oil and natural gas.[41]

In total, there are 160 deposits with over 2.7 billion tons of petroleum. Oil explorations have shown that the deposits on the Caspian shore are only a small part of a much larger deposit. It is said that 3.5 billion tons of oil and 2.5 trillion cubic meters of gas could be found in that area. Overall the estimate of Kazakhstan's oil deposits is 6.1 billion tons. However, there are only 3 refineries within the country, situated in Atyrau, Pavlodar, and Shymkent. These are not capable of processing the total crude output so much of it is exported to Russia. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration Kazakhstan was producing approximately 1,540,000 barrels (245,000 m3) of oil per day in 2009.[42]

Demographics

The US Census Bureau International Database list the current population of Kazakhstan as 15,460,484, while United Nations sources such as the UN Population Division give an estimate of 15,753,460. Official estimates put the population of Kazakhstan at 16.455 million as of February 2011, of which 46% is rural and 54% is urban.[43] The 2009 population estimate is 6.8% higher than the population reported in the last census from January 1999. The decline in population that began after 1989 has been arrested and possibly reversed. Men and women make up 48.3% and 51.7% of the population, respectively.

A Kazakh woman

The ethnic Kazakhs represent 63.1% of the population and ethnic Russians 23.7%,[1] with a rich array of other groups represented, including Tatars (1.3%), Ukrainians (2.1%), Uzbeks (2.8%), Belarusians, Uyghurs (1.4%), Azerbaijanis, Poles,[44] and Lithuanians. Some minorities such as Germans (1.1%) (Germans who had previously settled in Russia, especially Volga Germans), Ukrainians, Koreans, Kurds, Chechens,[45] Meskhetian Turks, and Russian political opponents of the regime had been deported to Kazakhstan in the 1930s and 1940s by Stalin; some of the bigger Soviet labour camps (Gulag) existed in the country.[46]

Significant Russian immigration also connected with Virgin Lands Campaign and Soviet space program during Khrushchev era.[47] In 1989, Kazakhs held a majority in only 7 of the 20 regions of the country. There is also a small but active Jewish community. Before 1991 there were one million Germans in Kazakhstan; most of them emigrated to Germany following the breakup of the Soviet Union.[48] Most members of the smaller Pontian Greek minority have emigrated to Greece. In the late 1930s thousands of Koreans in the Soviet Union were deported to Central Asia. These people are now known as Koryo-saram.

The ethnolinguistic patchwork of Central Asia

Kazakhstan is a bilingual country: the Kazakh language, spoken by 64.4% of the population, has the status of the "state" language, while Russian, which is spoken by almost all Kazakhstanis, is declared the "official" language, and is used routinely in business. English gained its popularity among the youth since the collapse of USSR.

The 1990s were marked by the emigration of many of the country's Russians and Volga Germans, a process that began in the 1970s. This has made indigenous Kazakhs the largest ethnic group. Additional factors in the increase in the Kazakh population are higher birthrates and immigration of ethnic Kazakhs from the People's Republic of China, Mongolia, and Russia.

In the early 21st century, Kazakhstan has become one of the leading nations in international adoptions. This has recently sparked some criticism in the Parliament of Kazakhstan, due to the concerns about safety and treatment of the children abroad and the questions regarding the low level of population in Kazakhstan.

Religion

Religion in Kazakhstan
Religion Percent
Islam
  
70.2%
Christian
  
26.2%
Others
  
3.6%

According to the 2009 Census, 70.2% of the population is Muslim, 26.6% Christian, 0.1% Buddhists, 0.2% others (mostly Jews), and 2.8% non-believers, while 0.5% chose to not to answer.[49]

Islam is the largest religion in Kazakhstan followed by Russian Orthodox Christianity. After decades of religious suppression by the Soviet Union, the coming of independence witnessed a surge in expression of ethnic identity, partly through religion. The free practice of religious beliefs and the establishment of full freedom of religion led to an increase of religious activity. Hundreds of mosques, churches, synagogues, and other religious structures were built in the span of a few years, with the number of religious associations rising from 670 in 1990 to 4,170 today.[50]

The majority of Muslims are Sunni following the Hanafi school, including ethnic Kazakhs, who constitute about 60% the population, as well as by ethnic Uzbeks, Uighurs, and Tatars.[51] Less than 1% are part of the Sunni Shafi`i school (primarily Chechens). There are a total of 2,300 mosques,[50] all of them are affiliated with the "Spiritual Association of Muslims of Kazakhstan", headed by a supreme mufti.[52] The Eid al-Adha is recognized as a national holiday.[50]

One fourth of the population is Russian Orthodox, including ethnic Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians.[53] Other Christian groups include Roman Catholics and Protestants.[51] There are a total of 258 Orthodox churches, 93 Catholic churches, and over 500 Protestant churches and prayer houses. The Russian Orthodox Christmas is recognized as a national holiday in Kazakhstan.[50] Other religious groups include Judaism, the Bahá'í Faith, Hinduism, Buddhists, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[51]

The front of the Nur-Astana Mosque in Astana during the morning hours. Islam is the major religion of Kazakhstan, and Nur-Astana mosque is the largest in the country.

According to the 2009 Census data, there are very few Christians outside the Slavic and Germanic ethic groups:[54]

Ethnic Islam Christian Judaism Budhdhism Other Atheism NA
Total 70.20% 26.32% 0.03% 0.09% 0.02% 2.82% 0.51%
Kazakh 98.34% 0.39% 0.02% 0.01% 0.02% 0.98% 0.26%
Russian 1.43% 91.64% 0.04% 0.02% 0.03% 6.09% 0.75%
Uzbec 99.05% 0.39% 0.01% 0.01% 0.02% 0.37% 0.16%
Ukarinian 0.94% 90.74% 0.03% 0.01% 0.02% 7.31% 0.94%
Uighur 98.35% 0.51% 0.02% 0.01% 0.03% 0.61% 0.47%
Tatar 79.57% 10.24% 0.02% 0.03% 0.06% 8.11% 1.97%
German 1.58% 81.59% 0.05% 0.04% 0.11% 13.96% 2.68%
Korean 5.24% 49.35% 0.21% 11.40% 0.14% 28.51% 5.16%
Turk 99.13% 0.30% 0.01% 0.01% 0.02% 0.33% 0.21%
Azeri 94.81% 2.51% 0.02% 0.02% 0.03% 1.86% 0.76%
Belorussian 0.79% 90.16% 0.04% 0.01% 0.03% 7.82% 1.15%
Dungan 98.93% 0.37% 0.01% 0.03% 0.04% 0.34% 0.28%
Kurd 98.28% 0.53% 0.03% 0.02% 0.02% 0.74% 0.38%
Tadzhik 97.78% 0.91% 0.01% 0.02% 0.08% 0.85% 0.35%
Polyak 0.69% 90.07% 0.04% 0.01% 0.13% 7.30% 1.76%
Chechen 93.69% 2.99% 0.02% 0.01% 0.05% 2.08% 1.16%
Kyrgyz 96.67% 0.89% 0.03% 0.03% 0.02% 1.51% 0.86%
Others 34.69% 52.32% 0.82% 0.91% 0.13% 8.44% 2.69%

Education

Education is universal and mandatory through to the secondary level and the adult literacy rate is 99.5%. Education consists of three main educational phases: primary education (forms 1–4), basic general education (forms 5–9) and senior level education (forms 10–11 or 12) divided into continued general education and professional education (primary education is preceded by one year of pre-school education). These three levels of education can be followed in one institution or in different ones (e.g. primary school, then secondary school). Recently, several secondary schools, specialized schools, magnet schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, linguistic and technical gymnasiums, have been founded. Secondary professional education is offered in special professional or technical schools, lyceums or colleges and vocational schools.

At present, there are universities, academies, and institutes, conservatories, higher schools and higher colleges. There are three main levels: basic higher education that provides the fundamentals of the chosen field of study and leads to the award of the Bachelor's degree; specialized higher education after which students are awarded the Specialist's Diploma; and scientific-pedagogical higher education which leads to the Master's Degree. Postgraduate education leads to the Kandidat nauk (Candidate of Sciences) and the Doctor of Sciences or Ph.D. With the adoption of the Laws on Education and on Higher Education, a private sector has been established and several private institutions have been licensed.

The Ministry of Education of Kazakhstan runs a highly successful Bolashak scholarship, which is annually awarded to approximately three thousand applicants. The scholarship funds their education in institutions abroad, including the prestigious University of Toronto, University College London, Oxford and Ivy League universities. The terms of the program include mandatory return to Kazakhstan for at least five years of employment.

Culture

Riders in traditional dress demonstrate Kazakhstan's equestrian culture by playing a kissing game, Kyz kuu ("Chase the Girl"), one of a number of traditional games played on horseback.[55]

Before the Russian colonization, the Kazakhs had a highly developed culture based on their nomadic pastoral economy. Although Islam was introduced to most of the Kazakhs in the 15th century, the religion was not fully assimilated until much later. As a result, it coexisted with earlier elements of Tengriism.

Traditional Kazakh belief held that separate spirits inhabited and animated the earth, sky, water and fire, as well as domestic animals. To this day, particularly honored guests in rural settings are treated to a feast of freshly killed lamb. Such guests are sometimes asked to bless the lamb and to ask its spirit for permission to partake of its flesh. Besides lamb, many other traditional foods retain symbolic value in Kazakh culture.

In the national cuisine, livestock meat can be cooked in a variety of ways and is usually served with a wide assortment of traditional bread products. Refreshments often include black tea and traditional milk-derived drinks such as ayran, shubat and kymyz. A traditional Kazakh dinner involves a multitude of appetisers on the table, followed by a soup and one or two main courses such as pilaf and beshbarmak. They also drink their national beverage, which consists of fermented mare's milk.

A Kazakh wedding party in Almaty

Because livestock was central to the Kazakhs' traditional lifestyle, most of their nomadic practices and customs relate in some way to livestock. Kazakhs have historically been very passionate about horse-riding. Traditional curses and blessings invoked disease or fecundity among animals, and good manners required that a person ask first about the health of a man's livestock when greeting him and only afterward inquire about the human aspects of his life. Even today, many Kazakhs express interest in equestrianism and horse-racing.

Kazakhstan is home to a large number of prominent contributors to literature, science and philosophy: Abay Qunanbayuli, Mukhtar Auezov, Gabit Musirepov, Kanysh Satpayev, Mukhtar Shakhanov, Saken Seyfullin, Jambyl Jabayev, among many others.

Kazakhstan features a lively music culture, evident in massive popularity of SuperStar KZ, a local offspring of Simon Fuller's Pop Idol. Almaty is considered to be the musical capital of the Central Asia, recently enjoying concerts by well-known artists such as Deep Purple, Tokio Hotel, Atomic Kitten, Dima Bilan, Loon, Craig David, The Black Eyed Peas, Eros Ramazzotti, José Carreras, Ace of Base, among others.

Sports

Yaroslava Shvedova, Wimbledon 2010 Women's doubles winner

Kazakhstan has developed itself as a formidable sports-force on the world arena in the following fields: boxing, chess, kickboxing, skiing, gymnastics, water-polo, cycling, martial arts, heavy-athletics, horse-riding, triathlon, track-hurdles, sambo, greco-roman wrestling and billiards. The following are all well-known Kazakhstani athletes and world-championship medalists: Bekzat Sattarkhanov, Vassiliy Jirov, Alexander Vinokourov, Bulat Jumadilov, Mukhtarkhan Dildabekov, Olga Shishigina, Andrey Kashechkin, Aliya Yussupova, Dmitriy Karpov, Darmen Sadvakasov, Yeldos Ikhsangaliyev, Aidar Kabimollayev, Yermakhan Ibraimov, Vladimir Smirnov, among others.

Top Kazakhstani Ice Hockey players include Nikolai Antropov and Evgeni Nabokov. Barys Astana - a major professional Ice Hockey team play in the Kontinental Hockey League.

Public holidays

Date English name Local name Notes
January 1–2 New Year's Day Жаңа жыл / Новый Год
January 7 Eastern Orthodox Christmas Рождество Христово from 2007 official holiday
Last day of Hajj Qurban Ayt* Құрбан айт
March 8 International Women's Day Халықаралық әйелдер күні/Международный женский день
March 21–23 Nauryz Meyramy Наурыз мейрамы Which is originally the Persian new year, is traditionally a springtime holiday marking

the beginning of a new year sometimes as late as April 21.

May 1 Kazakhstan People's Unity Day Қазақстан халқының бірлігі мерекесі
May 9 Great Patriotic War Against Fascism Victory Day Жеңіс күні A holiday in the former Soviet Union carried over

to present-day Kazakhstan and other former republics (Except Baltic Countries).

July 6 Capital City Day Астана күні Birthday of the First President
August 30 Constitution Day Қазақстан Республикасының Конституциясы күні
December 16–17 Independence Day Тәуелсіздік күні

* Eid al-Adha, the Islamic Feast of the Sacrifice.

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e "Перепись населения Республики Казахстан 2009 года. Краткие итоги. (Census for the Republic of Kazakhstan 2009. Short Summary)" (in Russian). Republic of Kazakhstan Statistical Agency. http://www.stat.kz/p_perepis/Documents/%D0%9F%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%8C%20%D1%80%D1%83%D1%81.pdf. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Kazakhstan". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=916&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=46&pr.y=7. Retrieved 2011-04-30. 
  3. ^ CIA World Factbook: Field listing, Distribution of family income – Gini index
  4. ^ "Human Development Report 2010". United Nations. 2010. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  5. ^ "Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan (ASRK). 2005. Main Demographic Indicators". Stat.kz. http://www.stat.kz. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  6. ^ Kazakhstan United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2007. "Kazakhstan" in The World Factbook.
  7. ^  . "Census2010". Stat.kz. http://www.eng.stat.kz/news/Pages/n1_12_11_10.aspx. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  8. ^ Zarakhovich, Yuri (September 27, 2006). "Kazakhstan Comes on Strong", Time Magazine.
  9. ^ Medvedev Visit Underscores Kazakh Victory Over Uzbekistan For Regional Dominance Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
  10. ^ Kazakhstan The constitution of Kazakhstan CIA, The Word Factbook The constitution of Kazakhstan: 1. The state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be the Kazakh language. 2. In state institutions and local self-administrative bodies the Russian language shall be officially used on equal grounds along with the Kazakh language.
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  12. ^ "Scythian". The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Micropædia. Volume 10 (15th ed.). p. 576. "member of a nomadic people originally of Iranian stock who migrated from Central Asia to southern Russia in the 8th and 7th centuries BC". 
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  20. ^ Children of the gulag live with amnesia, Taipei Times, January 1, 2007
  21. ^ Moya Flynn. (1994). "Migrant resettlement in the Russian federation: reconstructing 'homes' and 'homelands'". p.15. ISBN 1-84331-117-8
  22. ^ a b Brill Olcott, Martha (2008-07-22). "When and How Will Kazakhstan Become A Democracy?". U.S. Helsinki Commission. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=20316. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
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  24. ^ World War 3 web site.
  25. ^ Central Asia-Caucasus Institute briefing, July 5, 2000.
  26. ^ Kazakh President Signs 'Privacy' Law. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2009-12-10. http://www.rferl.org/content/Kazakh_President_Signs_Privacy_Law/1900627.html. Retrieved 2010-01-16 
  27. ^ "Kazakhstan's Nazarbayev Wins Re-election With 91% of Vote". Bloomberg.com. 2005-12-05. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000087&sid=a2ml5vt5j2_M&refer=top_world_news. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
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  30. ^ Blank, Stephen (April 27, 2005). "Kazakhstan's Foreign Policy in a Time of Turmoil". EurasiaNet. http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav042705.shtml. 
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  32. ^ "Kazakhstan - MSN Encarta". Kazakhstan - MSN Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761566451. 
  33. ^ "The World Bank". Datafinder.worldbank.org. http://datafinder.worldbank.org/gdp-growth-annual. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  34. ^ "The Atomic Company Kazatomprom web-site". Kazatomprom.kz. 2009-12-30. http://www.kazatomprom.kz/en/news/2/%E2%84%96_1_in_the_world. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  35. ^ "Uranium and Nuclear Power in Kazakhstan". world-nuclear.org. 2011-02-17. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf89.html. Retrieved 2011-03-05. 
  36. ^ "Background Note: Kazakhstan". State.gov. 2009-04-20. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5487.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  37. ^ Pollan, Michael (2009). "Apple sweetness". The Botany of Desire. San Francisco: KQED. http://www.pbs.org/thebotanyofdesire/apple-sweetness.php. Retrieved 2010-11-29. 
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  39. ^ Mineral Wealth.
  40. ^ International Crisis Group. 2007. Central Asia's Energy Risks, Asia Report No. 133. May. Available on-line at http://www.crisisgroup.org/
  41. ^ "U.S. Energy Information Administration. Independent Statistics and Analysis. Database on-line". Tonto.eia.doe.gov. 2010-05-11. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/cfapps/STEO_Query/steotables.cfm?periodType=Annual&startYear=2005&startMonth=1&endYear=2009&endMonth=12&tableNumber=29. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  42. ^  . "Population and social policy, Statistical Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan". Stat.kz. http://www.stat.kz/p_perepis/Pages/n_04_02_10.aspx. Retrieved 2010-06-01. [dead link]
  43. ^ "Kazakhstan's `forgotten Poles' long to return". Cdi.org. 2003-01-02. http://www.cdi.org/russia/johnson/7002-15.cfm. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  44. ^ Remembering Stalin's deportations, BBC News, February 23, 2004
  45. ^ Politics, economics and time bury memories of the Kazakh gulag, International Herald Tribune, January 1, 2007
  46. ^ Robert Greenall, Russians left behind in Central Asia, BBC, November 23, 2005
  47. ^ Kazakhstan: Special report on ethnic Germans, IRIN Asia, February 1, 2005
  48. ^ "The results of the national population census in 2009". Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 12 November 2010. http://www.eng.stat.kz/news/Pages/n1_12_11_10.aspx. Retrieved 21 January 2010. 
  49. ^ a b c d Religious Situation Review in Kazakhstan Congress of World Religions. Retrieved on 2009-09-07.
  50. ^ a b c Kazakhstan - International Religious Freedom Report 2008 U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2009-09-07.
  51. ^ Islam in Kazakhstan Retrieved on 2009-09-07.
  52. ^ "Kazakhstan". United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. United States Department of State. 2009-10-26. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2009/127366.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-03. 
  53. ^ http://www.stat.kz/p_perepis/Documents/%D0%9D%D0%B0%D1%86%20%D1%81%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%B2.rar
  54. ^ The Customs and Traditions of the Kazakh By Betsy Wagenhauser
Further reading
  • Alexandrov, Mikhail (1999). Uneasy Alliance: Relations Between Russia and Kazakhstan in the Post-Soviet Era, 1992–1997. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313309655 .
  • Clammer, Paul; Kohn, Michael & Mayhew, Bradley (2004). Lonely Planet Guide: Central Asia. Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet. ISBN 1864502967 .
  • Cummings, Sally (2002). Kazakhstan: Power and the Elite. London: Tauris. ISBN 1860648541 .
  • Demko, George (1997). The Russian Colonization of Kazakhstan. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0700703802 .
  • Fergus, Michael & Jandosova, Janar (2003). Kazakhstan: Coming of Age. London: Stacey International. ISBN 1900988615 .
  • George, Alexandra (2001). Journey into Kazakhstan: The True Face of the Nazarbayev Regime. Lanham: University Press of America. ISBN 0761819649 .
  • Martin, Virginia (2000). Law and Custom in the Steppe. Richmond: Curzon. ISBN 0700714057 .
  • Nazarbayev, Nursultan (2001). Epicenter of Peace. Hollis, NH: Puritan Press. ISBN 1884186130 .
  • Nazpary, Joma (2002). Post-Soviet Chaos: Violence and Dispossession in Kazakhstan. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 0745315038 .
  • Olcott, Martha Brill (2002). Kazakhstan: Unfulfilled Promise. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0870031899 .
  • Rall, Ted (2006). Silk Road to Ruin: Is Central Asia the New Middle East?. New York: NBM. ISBN 1561634549 .
  • Robbins, Christopher (2007). In Search of Kazakhstan: The Land That Disappeared. London: Profile Books. ISBN 9781861978684 .
  • Rosten, Keith (2005). Once in Kazakhstan: The Snow Leopard Emerges. New York: iUniverse. ISBN 0595327826 .
  • Thubron, Colin (1994). The Lost Heart of Asia. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0060182261 .

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