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Nepalese Civil War

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Nepali Civil War
Nepal map.png
Map of Nepal
Date 13 February 1996 – 21 November 2006
Location Nepal
Result most Maoist demands conceded
Nepal Nepal (Government) South Asian Communist Banner.svg Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)
Commanders and leaders
Kingdom of Nepal.png King Gyanendra Shah
Kingdom of Nepal.png PM Lokendra Bahadur Chand
Kingdom of Nepal.png PM Surya Bahadur Thapa
Kingdom of Nepal.png PM Krishna Prasad Bhattarai
Kingdom of Nepal.png PM Girija Prasad Koirala
Kingdom of Nepal.png PM Sher Bahadur Deuba

Kingdom of Nepal.png General Prajwalla SJB Rana
Kingdom of Nepal.png General Pyar Jung Thapa
South Asian Communist Banner.svg Prachanda (Pushpa Kamal Dahal)
South Asian Communist Banner.svg Baburam Bhattarai
South Asian Communist Banner.svg Kiran (Mohan Baidhya)

South Asian Communist Banner.svg Pasang (Nanda Kishor Pun)
Casualties and losses
12,700+ deaths[1]
History of Nepal
Kirat era
Licchavi era
Malla era
Shah era
(Rana era)
1990 democracy
Nepalese Civil War
2006 democracy
Democratic era
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The Nepali Civil War (labelled People's War by the Maoists[2]) was a conflict between government forces and Maoist rebels in Nepal which lasted from 1996 until 2006. The war was started by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) on 13 February 1996, with the aim of overthrowing the Nepalese monarchy and establishing the "People's Republic of Nepal." It ended with a Comprehensive Peace Accord signed on 21 November 2006 which is now monitored by United Nations Mission in Nepal.


[edit] Overview

More than 1500 people were killed (6000 by Maoists and 9000 by the government)[1] and an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people were internally displaced as a result of the conflict. This conflict disrupted the majority of rural development activities and led to a deep and complex Left Front which, together with the Nepali Congress, was the backbone of the broadbased movement for democratic change. However, communist groups uncomfortable with the alliance between ULF and Congress formed a parallel front, the United National People's Movement. The UNPM called for elections to a Constituent Assembly, and rejected compromises made by ULF and Congress with the royal house. In November 1990 the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre) was formed, including key elements of constituents of UNPM. The new party held its first convention in 1991, the adopted a line of "protracted armed struggle on the route to a new democratic revolution" and that the party would remain an underground party. The CPN(UC) set up Samyukta Jana Morcha, with Baburam Bhattarai as its head, as an open front ten contest elections. In the 1991 elections, SJM became the third force in the Nepali parliament. However, disagreements surged regarding which tactics were to be used by the party. One sector argued for immediate armed revolution whereas others (including senior leaders like Nirmal Lama) claimed that Nepal was not yet ripe for armed struggle.

In 1994 CPN(UC)/SJM was split in two. The militant sector later renamed itself the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). The Maoists labeled the government forces "feudal forces," and included in this accusation the monarchy and the mainstream political parties. The armed struggle began soon afterward with simultaneous attacks on remote police stations and district headquarters. Initially, the Nepali government mobilized the Nepal Police to contain the insurgency. The Royal Nepal Army was not involved in direct fighting because the conflict was regarded as a matter for the police to sustain control. Furthermore, controversy grew regarding the army not assisting the police during insurgent attacks in remote areas. The popularly-elected prime minister resigned his post, due to the refusal of the Royal Army to take part in the conflict. This situation changed dramatically in 2002 when the first session of peace talks failed and the Maoists attacked an army barracks in Dang District in western Nepal. Overnight, the army was unleashed against the insurgents. At the same time, the king of Nepal maintained a puppet democratic government which depended upon him for their status to remain legitimate. Under the aegis of the global War on Terrorism and with the stated goal of averting the development of a "failed state" that could serve as a source of regional and international instability, the United States, European Union, and India, among other nations, have provided extensive military and economic aid to the Nepali government. This material support to the Nepali government dried up after King Gyanendra seized full control in February 2005 to get rid of civil war for once and all.

The government responded to the rebellion by banning provocative statements about the monarchy,[3] imprisoning journalists, and shutting down newspapers accused of siding with the insurgents. Several rounds of negotiations, accompanied by temporary cease-fires, have been held between the insurgents and the government. The government has categorically rejected the insurgents' demand for an election to the constituent assembly; it would result in the abolition of the monarchy by a popular vote. At the same time, the Maoists have refused to recognize the installation of a constitutional monarchy. In November 2004, the government rejected the Maoists' request to negotiate directly with the King Gyanendra rather than via the Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba; their request for discussions to be mediated by a third party, such as the United Nations was dismissed.

Throughout war, the government controlled the main cities and towns, whilst the Maoist dominated the rural areas. Historically, the presence of the Nepali government has been limited to town and zonal centers. The only state apparatus present in most small villages, where most of the inhabitants of Nepal live, were a health post, a government school, a village council, and a police booth. Once the insurgency began, the schools were all that remained, indicating that the Maoists had seized control of the village. The Royal government powerbase is located in the zonal headquarters and the capital Kathmandu. Unrest reached Kathmandu in 2004 when the Maoists announced a blockade of the capital city.

Three maoist rebels are waiting on top of a hill in the Rolpa district to get orders to relocate to another location.

Intense fighting and civic unrest continued well into 2005, with the death toll rising to 200 in December 2004. On 1 February 2005, in response to the inability of the relatively democratic government to restore order, King Gyanendra assumed total control of the government. He proclaimed, "Democracy and progress contradict one another… In pursuit of liberalism, we should never overlook an important aspect of our conduct, namely discipline."

On 22 November 2005, the joint CPN(M)-United People's Front conference in Delhi issued a 12-point resolution, stating that they "…completely agree that autocratic monarchy is the main hurdle" hindering the realisation of "democracy, peace, prosperity, social advancement and a free and sovereign Nepal." In addition, "It is our clear view that without establishing absolute democracy by ending autocratic monarchy, there is no possibility of peace, progress, and prosperity in the country."[4]

An understanding had been reached to establish absolute democracy by ending monarchy with the respective forces centralizing their assault against monarchy thereby creating a nationwide storm of democratic protests. This marked a departure from the previous stance of the CPN(M), which had so far vehemently opposed the gradual process of democratization advocated by the UPF.

As a result of the civil war, Nepal's greatest source of foreign exchange, its tourism industry, suffered considerably. iExplore, a travel company, published rankings of the popularity of tourist destinations, based on their sales, which indicated that Nepal had gone from being the tenth most popular destination among adventure travelers, to the twenty-seventh.[5]

The conflict has forced the young and able to seek work abroad in order to avoid the Human Rights Violations committed by the Government forces and the crimes committed by the Maoists. These labourers work predominantly in the Gulf (Qatar, Saudi Arabia, etc.) and Southeast Asia (Malaysia etc.). The regular flow of remittances from these labourers has permitted the country to avoid serious economic crisis or economic bankruptcy. The economy of Nepal is heavily dependent on the infusion of foreign income from the labouring class (similar to the Lebanese economy during its civil war).

[edit] Timeline

[edit] 1996

[edit] 2001

[edit] 2002

[edit] 2003

[edit] 2004

[edit] 2005

[edit] 2006

2006 democracy movement in Nepal

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b Ed Douglas. "Inside Nepal's Revolution..... (just to check..!!!)". National Geographic Magazine, p. 54, November 2005. Douglas lists the following figures: "Nepalis killed by Maoists from 1996 to 2005: 4,500. Nepalis killed by government in same period: 8,200."
  2. ^ Interview with Prachanda
  3. ^ "Anti-king remarks intolerable: Lohani". NepalNews: The Kathmandu Post. 20 December 2003. Archived from the original on November 14, 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20041114013039/http://www.nepalnews.com.np/contents/englishdaily/ktmpost/2003/dec/dec21/. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  4. ^ "12-Point Understanding between Parties and Maoists". eKantipur.com. 22 November 2005. http://www.kantipuronline.com/kolnews.php?&nid=57858. 
  5. ^ "Top Ten World Travel Destinations in 2004". iExplore. 10 January 2005. http://www.iexplore.com/about/pr_2005-01-10.jhtml. 
  6. ^ "However tortuous the road may be, the victory of the world proletarian revolution is certain". Human Rights Server. 28 May 2001. http://www.humanrights.de/doc_en/archiv/n/nepal/politics/170202_interview_pra.htm. 
  7. ^ Greenwald, Jeff (13 June 2001). "Murder and intrigue in Katmandu". World Tibet Network News. Archived from the original on August 24, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060824142517/http://www.tibet.ca/en/wtnarchive/2001/6/13-2_3.html. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  8. ^ Onesto, Li (17 June 2001). "Nepal: Murder in Palace, Maoists in Mountains". Revolutionary Worker Online. http://rwor.org/a/v23/1100-99/1107/nepal_royals.htm. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Pokharel, Tilak P (27 August 2003). "Nepali Rebels Walk Away from Peace Talks". World Press. http://www.worldpress.org/Asia/1478.cfm. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  10. ^ a b Miglani, Sanjeev (18 August 2003). "Nepal's Maoist cauldron draws foreign powers closer". ReliefWeb. http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/511eca17e4fc4a6d49256d860018432c?OpenDocument. 
  11. ^ Adhikari, Bipin (19 March 2003). "Code of conduct as a point of departure". The Kathmandu Post. http://www.nepalnews.com.np/contents/englishdaily/ktmpost/2003/mar/mar19/features1.htm. 
  12. ^ "More die in Nepal Maoist insurgency despite truce call". ABC News Online. 28 September 2003. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s955264.htm. 
  13. ^ "37 killed as Maoist army attacks camp". The Telegraph. 14 October 2003. http://www.telegraphindia.com/1031014/asp/foreign/story_2458810.asp. 
  14. ^ Sharma, Sushil (27 October 2003). "Maoists 'sorry' UK officer held". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3216993.stm. 
  15. ^ "How anti-monarchy movement took shape". The Independent. http://independent-bangladesh.com/news/apr/27/27042006re.htm#A2. 
  16. ^ "China arrests four Nepali Maoists for arms smuggling". Daily News. 20 November 2003. http://www.jang.com.pk/thenews/nov2003-daily/19-11-2003/world/w2.htm. 
  17. ^ "Nepal: Extra-judicial killings inquiry urgent". Scoop. 18 February 2004. http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WO0402/S00154.htm. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  18. ^ "India hands over two Maoist leaders to Nepal". The Times of India. 10 February 2004. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/488699.cms. 
  19. ^ a b "Nepal anti-rebel leader shot dead". BBC News. 15 February 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3490725.stm. 
  20. ^ a b "48 Maoist rebels killed in Nepal army attacks". KuraKani. 17 February 2004. http://www.kurakani.tk/Article163.phtml. 
  21. ^ "Chronology of decade-long conflict". ReliefWeb. 22 November 2006. http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/VBOL-6VSKJU?OpenDocument&RSS20=02-P. 
  22. ^ Sharma, Gopal (9 April 2004). "Nepal parties plan anti-monarchy rally". Independent Online. http://www.int.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=3&art_id=qw1081491841355B251. 
  23. ^ a b "140 Injured As Clashes Rock Nepal’s Capital". INDOlink. http://www.indolink.com/displayArticleS.php?id=040404100829. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Maoist rebels storm police post in Nepal, kill 9". Utusan Online. 5 April 2004. http://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/content.asp?y=2004&dt=0406&pub=Utusan_Express&sec=World&pg=wo_05.htm. 
  25. ^ "9 policemen dead as Maoists storm post in Nepal". INQ7. 5 April 2004. http://www.inq7.net/wnw/2004/apr/06/wnw_4-1.htm. 
  26. ^ "Rebels storm police post, kill nine officers". Gulfnews. 6 April 2004. http://archive.gulfnews.com/articles/04/04/06/117143.html. 
  27. ^ "Maoists kill 9 policemen". The Telegraph. 5 April 2004. http://www.telegraphindia.com/1040406/asp/foreign/story_3092324.asp. 
  28. ^ Singh, Kedar Man (3 April 2004). "Anti-monarchy protesters pack streets of Kathmandu". INQ7. http://www.inq7.net/wnw/2004/apr/04/wnw_3-2.htm. 
  29. ^ "Major parties take to the streets in Nepal". The Hindu. 14 March 2004. http://www.hindu.com/2005/03/15/stories/2005031503781400.htm. 
  30. ^ "Police want ‘shopping trip’ slowdown in Nepal". The Statesman. 5 April 2004. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=2&id=68320&usrsess=1. 
  31. ^ "Nepal rebels ready to surrender under UN supervision". The Times of India. 20 November 2005. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1301467.cms. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  32. ^ Sharma, Nagendar (18 November 2005). "Nepal opposition in Maoist talks". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4450438.stm. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  33. ^ Pasricha, Anjana (2 January 2006). "Nepal Rebels Call Off Four-Month Truce". Voice of America. Archived from the original on June 13, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080613194733/http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-01/2006-01-02-voa14.cfm?CFID=3777224&CFTOKEN=93126810. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  34. ^ "Nepal rebels call for indefinite strike against king". The Boston Globe. 18 February 2006. http://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2006/02/18/nepal_rebels_call_for_indefinite_strike_against_king/. [dead link]
  35. ^ Gurubacharya, Binaj (8 April 2006). "Anti-monarchy rallies spread in Nepal". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2006/04/08/anti_monarchy_rallies_spread_in_nepal/. 
  36. ^ "Violent clashes amid Nepal curfew". BBC News. 10 April 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4894474.stm. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  37. ^ "Nepal Maoist rebels declare truce". BBC News. 27 April 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4949066.stm. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  38. ^ "Nepal's Maoists Declare Ceasefire". Voice of America. 27 April 2006. http://voanews.com/english/archive/2006-04/nepal-ceasfire.cfm?CFID=3777874&CFTOKEN=10318971. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  39. ^ "Nepal calls ceasefire with rebels". BBC News. 3 May 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4969422.stm. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  40. ^ "Peace deal ends Nepal's civil war". BBC News. 21 November 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/6169746.stm. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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