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This geological composition makes production costs some of the highest in the region. The transition into secondary and tertiary extraction techniques will only increase these costs even further. <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> has thus far implemented a successful program to reverse the decline in production experienced for most of the past decade, deploying some of the most sophisticated methods of oil extraction. <p></p> </div> <div> <div align="center" title="Selected Middle East Proven Oil Reserves, January 1, 2011" style="page-break-inside: avoid;"><img src="/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/Oman/images/oman- 2011 ME_oil_reserves.gif" alt="Selected Middle East Proven Oil Reserves, January 1, 2011" border="0" style="" class="cabs_graphic"></div> <p></p> </div><span class="cssSubheading1">Sector Organization</span><br><div><span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> s Ministry of Oil and Gas coordinates the state s role in the country s hydrocarbon sectors. Final approval on policy and investment, however, rests with the sultan of <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span>, Qaboos bin Said, who also holds the office of prime minister. The implementation of oil policy is done through an integrated company in which the Sultanate of Oman owns majority stakes. Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) holds for more than 90 percent of <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> s oil reserves and is responsible for 80 percent of its production. Aside from the government s 60 percent share, Shell (34 percent), Total (4 percent), and <span class="place"><span class="country_region">Portugal</span></span> s Partex (2 percent) all own stakes in PDO. <p></p> </div> <div>Given the technical difficulties involved in production, the contract terms for international oil companies (IOCs) have become more favorable than elsewhere in the region, some allowing significant equity stakes in certain projects. Occidental Petroleum has the largest presence of any foreign firm and is the second largest oil-producer in <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span>. Other major players with interests in <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> include: Shell, Total, Partex, BP, CNPC, KoGas, and Repsol. In 2010, BG quit <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> because of inadequate findings in exploration at its concession areas.<p></p> </div><span class="cssSubheading1">Production<span style=""></span></span><br><div><span class="place"><span class="country_region">Oman</span></span> produced 863,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) of total petroleum liquids in 2010, 860,000 bbl/d of which was crude oil. Average oil production in <span class="place"><span class="country_region">Oman</span></span> has increased by over 20 percent for the past three years, from a low of 714,000 bbl/d in 2007. PDO owns a concession which previously encompassed most of the country, Block-6, which has since been broken up and parceled out in successive bidding rounds. Much of the production growth has come from the success of international firms in developing former portions of Block-6. Tethys Oil of Sweden in particular has received encouraging results, hitting oil at various wells in two of its onshore blocks in 2010, which could indicate a higher potential for sustained production levels. <p></p> </div> <div> <div align="center" title="Omani Oil Production and Consumption, 2000-2010" style="page-break-inside: avoid;"><img src="/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/Oman/images/oman-oil_prod_and_consump.gif" alt="Omani Oil Production and Consumption, 2000-2010" border="0" style="" class="cabs_graphic"></div> <p></p> </div> <div> <p></p> </div> <div>In 2002, PDO initiated a review of its mature oil fields to determine the feasibility of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques which would help boost production yet again. A massive EOR program was implemented, using varied techniques on a field-by-field basis, according to the geology. The future of <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> s oil sector is now dependent upon these EOR techniques. <p></p> </div> <div><span class="place"><span class="country_region">Oman</span></span> s EOR program consists of three different general methods of extracting oil, some of which have never been used on a commercial scale previously. Miscible gas injection, steam (thermal) injection, and polymer flooding are the cornerstone of <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> s efforts to step up production. Miscible gas injection involves pumping gas, often toxic, that dissolves in the oil, facilitating higher flow rates. PDO is using this method at its operations in the Harweel oil field cluster. Thermal EOR methods are being deployed at Mukhaizna, Marmul, Amal-East, Amal-West and Qarn Alam fields. Thermal EOR entails the injection of steam in various ways and durations so as to facilitate the flow of heavier oil to the well. Mukhaizna has already increased production to 50,000 bbl/d, with Occidental expecting that to rise to 150,000 bbl/d by 2012. When reservoirs contain heavier grades of crude, the viscosity of the oil restricts its flow to the well. With such a heavy grade of crude, water injection might not prove effective, as the disparity in viscosity causes the water to pass the oil, instead of pushing it to the well. At projects such as Marmul, with this heavy oil, injecting polymer fluid is more effective when injected into a well. <p></p> </div> <div>Production growth will come from the entire spectrum of oil development in <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span>. PDO wants to increase recovery rates at Yibal, a mainstay of Omani production, to 55 percent through traditional water-flooding. Finally, the discovery of al-Ghubar South in 2009 is the most promising discovery for <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> in years. Some officials at the Ministry of Oil and Gas reckon that al-Ghubar South could add as much as 1 billion barrels to reserves. Two significant discoveries were also made at Malaan West and Taliah in the Lekhwair cluster in northwest <span class="place"><span class="country_region">Oman</span></span>, which will broaden baseline production in the future. <p></p> </div> <div>Other large EOR projects include:<p></p> </div> <div class="cssListItem" style="margin-left: 30px;"><span style="font-family: Symbol;"></span><span class="cssListCharSpacing">Karim Cluster  a cluster of 18 oil small oil fields all flowing to the Nimr production facility, which is operated by Medco (<span class="place"><span class="country_region">Indonesia</span></span>). Currently producing 18,000 bbl/d, PDO is aiming to boost production to around 35,000 bbl/d in the short-term.</span></div> <div class="cssListItem" style="margin-left: 30px;"><span style="font-family: Symbol;"></span><span class="cssListCharSpacing">Harweel Cluster  PDO estimates a capacity of 100,000 bbl/d from the current 44,000 bbl/d in the next five years. </span></div> <div class="cssListItem" style="margin-left: 30px;"><span style="font-family: Symbol;"></span><span class="cssListCharSpacing">Growth of up to 70,000-80,000 bbl/d from five clusters, such as the Rima Cluster, is expected through various efficiency gains and EOR applications.</span></div> <p></p><span class="cssSubheading1">Consumption and Exports</span><br><div>In 2009, <span class="place"><span class="country_region">Oman</span></span> consumed approximately 115,000 bbl/d of petroleum products. Consumption has increased over the last decade, more than doubling from a level of 52,000 bbl/d in 2000. This has largely been attributable to <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> s industrialization and expanding petrochemical sector, along with better roadways and an expanding vehicle fleet. <p></p> </div> <div>Though <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> is a significant net exporter of petroleum, they are not a member of OPEC. As is the case with other exports from the Gulf, Asia provides the main consumer markets for Omani crude, led by <span class="country_region">China</span> and <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Japan</span></span>.<p></p> </div><span class="cssSubheading1">Pipelines and Export Terminals</span><br><div><span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> s pipeline system is mostly focused on delivering crude oil to the country s only oil export terminal at Mina al-Fahal. Located near the capital, <span class="place">Muscat</span>, both the export terminal at Mina al-Fahal and the Main Oil Line feeding the facilities are run by PDO. Pipelines also feed industrial complexes and petrochemical plants, which form an integral part of economic diversification and <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> s expansion into downstream activities. PDO operates about 1,000 miles of oil pipelines which run throughout the country.<p></p> </div><span class="cssSubheading1">Downstream Activities</span><br><div>In 2010, <span class="country_region">Oman</span> had a refining capacity of 222,000 bbl/d, split between <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> s two refineries. The Mina al-Fahal refinery was <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span> s first, opened in 1982, and has a capacity of 106,000 bbl/d of crude distillation after an expansion in 2007. The Sohar refinery was brought on-stream in 2006, with a refinery capacity of 116,000 bbl/d. The refineries are operated by the Oman Refineries and Petrochemicals Company (ORPC), the result of a 2007 merger between the Oman Refinery Company and the Sohar Refinery Company. ORPC is owned by the Omani Ministry of Finance (75 percent) and Oman Oil Company (OOC) (25 percent). The Sohar refinery is currently tendering contracts for an expansion project, which will bring crude distillation capacity to 190,000 bbl/d by 2013. <p></p> </div> <div><span class="country_region">Oman</span> continues to pursue the building of a large refinery and petrochemical complex at al-Duqm in southern <span class="country_region"><span class="place">Oman</span></span>, which would be geared toward export markets. Under a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed in July 2009, a joint venture between the Omani government and international investors would build a 200,000 300,000 bbl/d refinery, a crude oil export terminal, and several large petrochemical facilities. <p></p> </div> </td> </tr> </table> <p></p> </td> <td style="background:url(/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/images/R4_BG.jpg); background-position:right;" align="right"><a href="/web/20110302093656/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/index.html"><img src="/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/images/R4_10.jpg" alt="Country Analysis Briefs" border="0"></a><p></p> <table summary="" class="cssMenu" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" align="right"> <tr class="cssTableSpacer"> <td class="cssHeader2White" style="text-align:right; padding-right:10px">February 2011</td> </tr> <tr class="cssTableSpacer"> <td></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_b"> <td><a href="Background.html">Background</a></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_a"> <td><img src="/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/images/R4_Shadow.jpg" align="right" hspace="0" vspace="0"></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_b"> <td><a href="Oil.html">Oil</a></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_a"> <td><img src="/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/images/R4_Shadow.jpg" align="right" hspace="0" vspace="0"></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_b"> <td><a href="NaturalGas.html">Natural Gas</a></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_a"> <td><img src="/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/images/R4_Shadow.jpg" align="right" hspace="0" vspace="0"></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_b"> <td><a href="Profile.html">Quick Facts</a></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_a"> <td><img src="/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/images/R4_Shadow.jpg" align="right" hspace="0" vspace="0"></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_b"> <td><a href="Links.html">Links</a></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_a"> <td><img src="/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/images/R4_Shadow.jpg" align="right" hspace="0" vspace="0"></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_b"> <td><a href="Sources.html">Sources</a></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_a"> <td><img src="/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/images/R4_Shadow.jpg" align="right" hspace="0" vspace="0"></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu3"> <td>Full Report<br></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenuRegion"> <td><a href="Full.html" target="_newWin">HTML</a><br></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenuRegion"> <td><a href="pdf.pdf" target="_newWin">PDF</a><br></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_a"> <td><img src="/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/images/R4_Shadow.jpg" align="right" hspace="0" vspace="0"></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu3"> <td>Contact Info</td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu2"> <td><span class="cssMenu2Printer"><a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20110302093656/mailto:cabs@eia.gov">cabs@eia.gov</a><br>(202) 586-8800<br><a href="/web/20110302093656/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/Contacts.html">[more contacts]</a></span></td> </tr> <tr class="cssMenu_a"> <td><img src="/web/20110302093656im_/http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/images/R4_Shadow.jpg" align="right" hspace="0" vspace="0"></td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="3"><script language="JavaScript">InsertEIAFooterCode();</script></td> </tr> </table> </body> </html> <!-- FILE ARCHIVED ON 09:36:56 Mar 02, 2011 AND RETRIEVED FROM THE INTERNET ARCHIVE ON 01:07:01 Jan 17, 2022. 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